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This report analyzes different demographic cross-sections for cost-burdened households at various times over the study period (2000, 2010, and 2017).


The metro areas include the Public Use Micro Areas (PUMAs) associated with following counties for New York (Rockland, Orange, Westchester, Putnam, Duchess, Nassau, Suffolk, Bronx, Kings, New York, Queens, and Richmond), New Jersey, (Passaic, Bergen, Hudson, Essex, Union, and Middlesex), and Connecticut (Fairfield). Since counties are not identified in public-use microdata from 1950 onward and PUMAs change over time, we used consistent PUMA boundaries from 2000 to 2010 ( For more on this see a discussion here and here

Census microdata are used for both analyses; they include data from the Decennial 2000 5% sample, the 2006-2010 5-Year ACS estimates, and the 2013-2017 ACS 5-Year estimates, hereafter referred to as 2000, 2010, and 2017, respectively. The cross-sectional analysis reports summary statistics across the entire metro region with the individual household head as the unit of analysis. The spatial analysis collapses these observations into Public Use Micro Areas (PUMAs) and, using appropriate household weights, reports descriptive statistics for each geographic area. Data comes from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 9.0. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2019.


All race and ethnic groups saw increasing levels of rent burden across the study period, with Latino households reporting the highest rates of rent burden compared to every other racial and ethnic group at every point over the study period. Latino households have consistently seen higher rates of rent burden than non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic Asians—going from 40.3% in 2000 to 59.2% in 2017. While all Latino subgroups saw increases in rent burden over the study period, Mexican and Dominican-headed households saw the largest increases, moving from the lowest levels in 2000 to the highest levels in 2017. Homeowners saw increases in mortgage burden between 2000 and 2010 but decreases between 2010 and 2017. Non-Hispanic black and Latino populations saw the highest levels of mortgage burden at every point over the study period. While the Latino population reported the highest prevalence of mortgage burden in 2000 and 2010 (53.6% and 44.6% respectively), non-Hispanic black households experienced the highest rate in 2017 (45.2%). Asians and non-Hispanic white households saw the lowest rates among all four groups.


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Citation information: Castillo, Marco and Kasey Zapatka (2022). Unequal Burdens: Cost Burdens in the New York Metropolitan Area, 2000-2017. Edited by Sebastián Villamizar-Santamaría. New York, NY: Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies at the CUNY Graduate Center.



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