Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 12-5-2022



This study focuses on the socioeconomic conditions of the five largest Latino nationalities in New York City (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Ecuadorians, and Colombians) between 1990 and 2018. The report reveals significant differences in the socioeconomic status of Latinos and other racial and ethnic groups as well as between foreign-born and domestic-born Latinos.


This report uses the American Community Survey PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) data for all years released by the Census Bureau and reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa, ( See Public Use Microdata Series Steven Ruggles, J. Trent Alexander, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Matthew B. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2020. Census tract data depicted in maps were derived from Steven Manson, Jonathan Schroeder, David Van Riper, Tracy Kugler, and Steven Ruggles. IPUMS National Historical Geographic Information System: Version 15.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS.


The socioeconomic conditions of Latinos in New York City improved between 1990 and 2018. The median household income among Latinos in this period increased by 17.9%; the proportion of Latinos with household incomes under $50,000 annually decreased by 8.1 percentage points; and the proportion of Latinos with household incomes above $100,000 annually increased by 8.1 percentage points. However, compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Asians, Latinos in New York City had the lowest median household income and tended to fall into the lowest income brackets. Additionally, Latinos had a larger proportion of people living in poverty and a smaller adult population holding a bachelor’s degree or higher compared to the other major racial and ethnic groups. Socioeconomic conditions are analyzed in terms of sex and age distribution, median household income, household income distribution, poverty distribution, and educational attainment and this report found that between 1990 and 2018, foreign-born Latinos tended to have a larger median household income than domestic-born Latinos. Domestic-born Latinos, moreover, had a larger proportion of people in poverty than foreign-born Latinos. In terms of educational attainment, this report found that while in 1990 a larger proportion of foreign-born Latinos over 25 years old held a bachelor’s degree or higher, the trend reverted in 2000.


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Citation information: Aponte, Oscar (2022). Socioeconomic Conditions of Foreign-Born and Domestic-Born Latinos in New York City, 1990-2018. New York, NY: Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies at the CUNY Graduate Center



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