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Introduction: This study examines demographic and socioeconomic factors regarding Latinos in New York City between 1990 and 2010 – particularly education and income rates among Hispanic females.

Methods: Data on Latinos and other racial/ethnic groups were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa. Cases in the dataset were weighted and analyzed to produce population estimates.

Results: From 1990 to 2010 Latinas’ educational attainment and income levels both rose. Disparities between Latinas and Latinos in yearly personal income have persisted. From 1990 to 2010, women earned lower levels of yearly personal income than men. Hispanic women not only experienced increasingly higher levels of educational attainment between 1990 and 2010, but they surpassed the educational attainment levels of Hispanic men. Yet, despite higher educational attainment than Latinos, Latinas continued to earn less personal yearly income than Latinos. Reasons for this trend are discussed in the report. Households headed by Latinas earned lower levels of household income than Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Asian women from 1990 to 2010, with few exceptions. This persisted at equivalent levels of education.

Discussion: Many of these patterns are possibly attributed to migration patterns. As the foreign-born Mexican population increased, the influx of individuals with lower educational attainment likely contributed to lower education and income levels. As the foreign-born Puerto Rican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Dominican population decreased, their education and income levels rose.


For additional information about this collection see

Citation information: Calcagno, J. (2013). Latinas in New York City: A Comparison of Education and Income, 1990 – 2010. New York, NY: Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies at the CUNY Graduate Center.



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