Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name



Computer Science


Sergei Artemov

Committee Members

Melvin Fitting

Robert Milnikel

Rohit Parikh


Justification Logic is an emerging field that studies provability, knowledge, and belief via explicit proofs or justifications that are part of the language. There exist many justification logics closely related to modal epistemic logics of knowledge and belief. Instead of modality □ in pure justification logics, or in addition to modality □ in hybrid logics, which has an existential epistemic reading 'there exists a proof of F,' all justification logics use constructs t:F, where a justification term t represents a blueprint of a Hilbert-style proof of F. The first justification logic, LP, introduced by Sergei Artemov, was shown to be a justification counterpart of modal logic S4 and serves as a missing link between S4 and Peano arithmetic, thereby solving a long-standing problem of provability semantics for S4 and Int.

The machinery of explicit justifications can be used to analyze well-known epistemic paradoxes, e.g. Gettier's examples of justified true belief that can hardly be considered knowledge, and to find new approaches to the concept of common knowledge. Yet another possible application is the Logical Omniscience Problem, which reflects an undesirable property of knowledge as described by modality when an agent knows all the logical consequences of his/her knowledge. The language of justification logic opens new ways to tackle this problem.

This thesis focuses on quantitative analysis of justification logics. We explore their decidability and complexity of Validity Problem for them. A closer analysis of the realization phenomenon in general and of one procedure in particular enables us to deduce interesting corollaries about self-referentiality for several modal logics. A framework for proving decidability of various justification logics is developed by generalizing the Finite Model Property. Limitations of the method are demonstrated through an example of an undecidable justification logic. We study reflected fragments of justification logics and provide them with an axiomatization and a decision procedure whose complexity (the upper bound) turns out to be uniform for all justification logics, both pure and hybrid. For many justification logics, we also present lower and upper complexity bounds.


Digital reproducation from the UMI microform.