Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name





Alicia M. Alvero

Committee Members

Robert Ranaldi

Emily Jones

Aubrey C. Daniels

Timothy D. Ludwig

Subject Categories

Applied Behavior Analysis | Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Experimental Analysis of Behavior | Industrial and Organizational Psychology | Performance Management | Training and Development


feedback, feedback characteristics, feedback ratio, feedback classification system, organizational behavior management, performance management


Performance feedback is frequently discussed and implemented. Although shown to be quite effective, the characteristics of feedback have yet to be fully explored. Feedback ratio was explored in this study. While participants evaluated the postural safety of body positions presented on a computer screen, researchers measured the (a) number of s that it took participants to evaluate body positions (i.e., response time), (b) percent of correctly evaluated body positions (i.e., percent correct), and (c) extent to which participants appreciated the statements they received after responding (i.e., rating). Using a mixed-factorial design, researchers manipulated feedback within groups and feedback ratio between groups. Within groups, all participants were exposed to a control session, in which responses produced confirmation statements, and subsequent experimental sessions, in which responses produced feedback statements. Between groups, participants were randomly assigned to one of the five following ratios of complimentary to constructive feedback statements: 10:0, 8:2, 5:5, 2:8, and 0:10. Feedback decreased response time and increased percent correct across all groups. Feedback ratio differentially affected most groups on response time and some groups on percent correct. Both effects were more evident on response time than percent correct. Further, higher ratios of complimentary feedback statements were more effective on response time, while higher ratios of constructive feedback statements were more effective on percent correct. These results suggest that the effect of feedback ratio depends on the type of behavior targeted for improvement and that certain ratios may be more effective at changing behavior than others.