Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name





Kevin Nadal

Subject Categories

Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies | Law | Psychology


Assertiveness, Courts, Discrimination, Gender Nonconformity, LGBTQ


Using lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) and non-LGBTQ participants, a pair of studies explored the influence of LGBTQ identity and gender nonconformity (GNC) in experiences of discrimination in court settings. A one-way ANOVA tested whether LGBTQ participants were more likely to score low on the treatment in court scale. Additionally, two separate multiple regression analyses tested whether high scores on the Gender Nonconformity Scale (GNCS; Forbes & Nadal, under review), were associated with low scores on a measure of treatment in court. It was discovered that LGBTQ identity did not have a statistically significant effect on factor in treatment ratings. However, the higher an individual's score on the GNCS, the more likely it was that they would report negative court experiences. Additionally, the LGBTQ participants scored statistically significantly higher in GNC than non-LGBTQ participants did. The findings suggest that, with their higher levels of GNC, LGBTQ people may be more likely to encounter discrimination in the courts than non-LGBTQ people. For Study 2 it was theorized that assertiveness was a form of GNC for cisgender females and, using a multiple regression analysis, tested the three-way interaction between participants' sex assigned at birth and scores on the assertiveness and GNCS measures. Interestingly, the congruity between gender presentation (i.e., masculine or feminine) and assertiveness score was a better predictor of treatment than was the congruity between sex assigned at birth and assertiveness (i.e., female with low assertiveness scores). The implications for including measures of GNC as a standard for LGBTQ research are discussed.