Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name





Adrian Dumitru

Subject Categories

Elementary Particles and Fields and String Theory | Nuclear


Collisions, High-energy, Initial conditions, Small-x


This thesis is focused on the initial stages of high-energy collisions in the saturation regime. We start by extending the McLerran-Venugopalan distribution of color sources in the initial wave-function of nuclei in heavy-ion collisions. We derive a fourth-order operator in the action and discuss its relevance for the description of color charge distributions in protons in high-energy experiments. We calculate the dipole scattering amplitude in proton-proton collisions with the quartic action and find an agreement with experimental data. We also obtain a modification to the fluctuation parameter of the negative binomial distribution of particle multiplicities in proton-proton experiments. The result implies an advancement of the fourth-order action towards Gaussian when the energy is increased. Finally, we calculate perturbatively the expectation value of the magnetic Wilson loop operator in the first moments of heavy-ion collisions. For the magnetic flux we obtain a first non-trivial term that is proportional to the square of the area of the loop. The result is close to numerical calculations for small area loops.