Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name



Criminal Justice


David Brotherton

Committee Members

Lucia Trimbur

Richard Curtis

Jock Young

Cornel West

Charles S. Green

Subject Categories

African American Studies | Criminology | Educational Sociology | Inequality and Stratification | Race and Ethnicity


Black Academic Resilience, Criminogenic Resistance Theory, Racial Socialization, Black Identity Development, Structural Violence, Scholarvist


Utilizing 29 in-depth semi-structured interviews, the life-course narratives of Black male scholars who, as victims of varying manifestations of structural violence, have “beat the odds” academically. Findings suggest that Black men and boys benefit from positive, racially-informed socialization that assists in the development of an internalized identity that (a) acts as a protective and resistant barrier against some of the impediments of institutional racism, (b) operates as a counter-criminogenic influence, and (c) facilitates educational resilience. Criminogenic Resistance Theory (C.RT) is presented as an alternative conceptualization of the process by which Black boys resist the criminogenic influences of structuralized violence.



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