Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name





Martha Velasco Whetsell

Committee Members

Callista Roy

Stephen Baumann

William Gallo

Louis H. Primavera

Subject Categories



nursing research, nursing, Roy Adaptation Model, research instruments, Roy adaptation model-based measurement, coping and adaptation scale, nursing theory measurement instruments


Peoples’ lives are often interrupted or changed by experiencing a serious illness. It is important to study and understand the various coping processes that people have in adapting to illness. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure a person’s coping response to illness-related stimuli using the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) as its structure and framework. This study is quantitative descriptive design to develop the validity and reliability of a new instrument the Roy Adaptation Modes Scale (RAMS). A review of RAM based measurement instruments found no instrument that measured all four adaptive modes that is consistent with the RAM. Instrument development consisted of concept clarification, item development, and expert validity. The instrument was developed with four subscales; each subscale represents one of the four adaptive modes of the RAM (physiologic, self-concept, role function and interdependence). After pilot testing, the RAMS was administered to 400 patients at a large medical center. Item analysis was used to examine each subscale for construct validity and reliability, including examination of means, standard deviations and the corrected item-total correlations for each item in each subscale. Analyses and theoretical judgment was used to drop items from subscales. The revised RAMS is a 34-item instrument. The Cronbach’s alpha for the four subscales of the RAMS

ranged from .61 to .81 which is above the acceptable minimum of .60 for an instrument in the early stages of development. It is recommended that further research be conducted to psychometrically test the revised 34-item RAMS.

Included in

Nursing Commons