Date of Degree


Document Type


Degree Name





Vinod M. Menon

Subject Categories



dipoles, excitons, microcavity, polaritons, strong coupling, surface plasmon


In this thesis, we study the interaction of excitons with photons and plasmons and methods to control and enhance this interaction. This study is categorized in three parts: light-matter interaction in microcavity structures, direct dipole-dipole interactions, and plasmon-exciton interaction in metal-semiconductor systems.

In the microcavity structures, the light-matter interactions become significant when the excitonic energy is in resonance with microcavity photons. New hybrid quantum states named polariton states will be formed if the strong coupling regime is achieved, where the interaction rate is faster than the average decay rate of the excitons and photons. Polaritons have been investigated in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles based microcavity at room temperature and stimulated emission of the polaritons has also been observed with a low optical pump threshold.

Exictons in organic semiconductors (modeled as Frenkel excitons) are tightly bound to molecular sites, and differ considerably from loosely bound hydrogen atom-like inorganic excitons (modeled as Wannier-Mott excitons). This fundamental difference results in distinct optoelectronic properties. Not only strongly coupled to Wannier-Mott excitons in ZnO, the microcavity photons have also been observed to be simultaneously coupled to Frenkel excitons in 3,4,7,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA). The photons here act like a glue combining Wannier-Mott and Frenkel excitons into new hybrid polaritons taking the best from both constituents.

Two-dimensional (2D) excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have emerged as a new and fascinating type of Wannier-Mott-like excitons due to direct bandgap transition, huge oscillator strength and large binding energy. Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been incorporated into the microcavity structure and 2D exciton-polaritons have been observed for the first time with directional emission in the strong coupling regime. Valley polarization has also been discussed in this MoS2 microcavity for the possible applications in spin switches and logic gates.

The direct dipole-dipole type excitonic interactions have also been studied in inorganic-organic nanocomposites, where ZnO nanowire is taken as the inorganic constituent and NTCDA thin films as the organic constituent. The excitonic interactions can be classified into weak coupling regime and strong coupling regime. Forster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET), which is in the weak coupling regime, has been observed in this hybrid system. The optimized optical nonlinearity has also been determined in the hybrid system via Z-scan measurements.

Exciton-plasmon polariton, another example of strongly coupled state which results from the interaction between excitons and plasmons when they are in resonance, has also been investigated in this thesis. Two rhodamine dyes spincoated on the silver thin films have separately been observed to be strongly coupled to the surface plasmon modes. With observed new polariton states, energy transfer mechanism has been discussed for nonlinear optical applications.

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