This essay adresses the relationship between "being/speaking Francophone" and forms of ethnic-cultural dissent in France and the U.S. In both countries, terms such as Francophone and Francophonie are often captured by specific political agendas and practicies. What it means to be "Francophone" involves complex interfacings between various langages, including English and French, between competing discursive claims made on the basis of linguistic home and the particular forms of cultural and linguistic hybridity, such as French hip-hop culture and world music.
Sautman, Francesca. "Hip-Hop/Scotch: "Sounding Francophone" in French and United States Cultures.” France/USA: The Cultural Wars, ed. Ralph Sarkonak. Spec. issue of Yale French Studies, 100 (Fall 2001): 119-44.