MicroRNAs are key regulators associated with numerous diseases. In HEK293 cells, miR-153-3p and miR-205-5p down-regulate alpha-synuclein (SNCA) and Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), two key proteins involved in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) to identify a spectrum of miR-153-3p and miR-205-5p targets in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We overexpressed and inhibited both microRNAs in SH-SY5Y cells and through comparative proteomics profiling we quantified ~240 protein spots from each analysis. Combined, thirty-three protein spots were identified showing significant (p-value < 0.05) changes in abundance. Modulation of miR-153-3p resulted in seven up-regulated proteins and eight down-regulated proteins. miR-205 modulation resulted in twelve up-regulated proteins and six down-regulated proteins. Several of the proteins are associated with neuronal processes, including peroxiredoxin-2 and -4, cofilin-1, prefoldin 2, alpha-enolase, human nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (Nm23) and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. Many of the differentially expressed proteins are involved in diverse pathways including metabolism, neurotrophin signaling, actin cytoskeletal regulation, HIF-1 signaling and the proteasome indicating that miR-153-3p and miR-205-5p are involved in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes in neuroblastoma cells.