Previous research suggests that microaggressions, or subtle and covert manifestations of bias, are commonplace in the life experience of people of color, women, and sexual minorities. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on microaggressions toward people from religious minority groups. Using a qualitative approach and directed content analysis with Muslim American participants (N=10), six themes emerged: 1) Endorsing Religious Stereotypes of Muslims as Terrorists, 2) Pathology of the Muslim Religion, 3) Assumption of Religious Homogeneity, 4) Exoticization, 5) Islamophobic and Mocking Language, and 6) Alien in Own Land. Implications for Muslim mental health are discussed.
Nadal, Kevin L.; Griffin, Katie E.; Hamit, Sahran; Leon, Jayleen; Tobio, Michael; and Rivera, David P., "Subtle and Overt Forms of Islamophobia: Microaggressions toward Muslim Americans" (2012). CUNY Academic Works.