Traditional mathematics remediation is based on the theory that traditional mathematics remedial courses increase students’ subsequent academic performance. However, most students assigned to these courses do not pass them, and thus cannot graduate. An alternative approach, corequisite remediation, assigns students instead to college-level quantitative courses with additional academic support, often aligned to a student’s major. Here we report the longer-term results of a randomized controlled trial comparing corequisite remediation (with statistics) and traditional algebra remediation (297 students per group). The corequisite group not only demonstrated significantly higher quantitative course pass rates, but also success in many other disciplines, as well as significantly higher graduation rates. We also report the results of two quasi-experimental analyses (propensity score matching) demonstrating higher pass rates for corequisite mathematics remediation with 347 additional students in different settings. Policies requiring corequisite mathematics remediation can result in greater student success than is obtained with traditional remediation.