Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2019

Abstract

The Schrödinger-Pauli (SP) theory of electrons in the presence of a static electromagnetic field can be described from the perspective of the individual electron via its equation of motion or 'Quantal Newtonian' first law. The law is in terms of 'classical' fields whose sources are quantum-mechanical expectation values of Hermitian operators taken with respect to the wave function. The law states that the sum of the external and internal fields experienced by each electron vanishes. The external field is the sum of the binding electrostatic and Lorentz fields. The internal field is the sum of fields representative of properties of the system: electron correlations due to the Pauli principle and Coulomb repulsion; the electron density; kinetic effects; the current density. Thus, the internal field is a sum of the electron-interaction, differential density, kinetic, and internal magnetic fields. The energy can be expressed in integral virial form in terms of these fields. This new perspective is explicated by application to the triplet 23S state of a 2-D 2-electron quantum dot in a magnetic field. The quantal sources of the density; the paramagnetic, diamagnetic, and magnetization current densities; pair-correlation density; the Fermi-Coulomb hole charge; and the single-particle density matrix are obtained, and from them the corresponding fields determined. The fields are shown to satisfy the 'Quantal Newtonian' first law. The energy is determined from these fields. Finally, the example is employed to demonstrate the intrinsic self-consistent nature of the SP equation.

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