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We prove a version of Bell’s theorem in which the locality assumption is weakened. We start by assuming theoretical quantum mechanics and weak forms of relativistic causality and of realism (essentially the fact that observable values are well defined independently of whether or not they are measured). Under these hypotheses, we show that only one of the correlation functions that can be formulated in the framework of the usual Bell theorem is unknown. We prove that this unknown function must be differentiable at certain angular configuration points that include the origin. We also prove that, if this correlation is assumed to be twice differentiable at the origin, then we arrive at a version of Bell’s theorem. On the one hand, we are showing that any realistic theory of quantum mechanics which incorporates the kinematic aspects of relativity must lead to this type of rough correlation function that is once but not twice differentiable. On the other hand, this study brings us a single degree of differentiability away from a relativistic von Neumann no hidden variables theorem.


This article was originally published in the Journal of Mathematical Physics, available at



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