Insufficient chemotherapy response and rapid disease progression remain concerns for smallcell lung cancer (SCLC). Oncologists rely on serial CT scanning to guide treatment decisions, but this cannot assess in vivo target engagement of therapeutic agents. Biomarker assessments in biopsy material do not assess contemporaneous target expression, intratumoral drug exposure, or drug-target engagement. Here, we report the use of PARP1/2-targeted imaging to measure target engagement of PARP inhibitors in vivo. Using a panel of clinical PARP inhibitors, we show that PARP imaging can quantify target engagement of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. We measure PARP1/2 inhibition over time to calculate effective doses for individual drugs. Using patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that different therapeutics achieve similar integrated inhibition efficiencies under different dosing regimens. This imaging approach to non-invasive, quantitative assessment of dynamic intratumoral target inhibition may improve patient care through realtime monitoring of drug delivery.