Streaming APIs are becoming more pervasive in mainstream Object-Oriented programming languages and platforms. For example, the Stream API introduced in Java 8 allows for functional-like, MapReduce-style operations in processing both finite, e.g., collections, and infinite data structures. However, using this API efficiently involves subtle considerations such as determining when it is best for stream operations to run in parallel, when running operations in parallel can be less efficient, and when it is safe to run in parallel due to possible lambda expression side-effects. Also, streams may not run all operations in parallel depending on particular collectors used in reductions. In this paper, we present an automated refactoring approach that assists developers in writing efficient stream code in a semantics-preserving fashion. The approach, based on a novel data ordering and typestate analysis, consists of preconditions and transformations for automatically determining when it is safe and possibly advantageous to convert sequential streams to parallel, unorder or de-parallelize already parallel streams, and optimize streams involving complex reductions. The approach was implemented as a plug-in to the popular Eclipse IDE, uses the WALA and SAFE analysis frameworks, and was evaluated on 11 Java projects consisting of ∼642K lines of code. We found that 57 of 157 candidate streams (36.31%) were refactorable, and an average speedup of 3.49 on performance tests was observed. The results indicate that the approach is useful in optimizing stream code to their full potential.
Raffi Khatchadourian, Yiming Tang, Mehdi Bagherzadeh, and Syed Ahmed. Safe automated refactoring for intelligent parallelization of Java 8 streams. Technical Report 544, City University of New York (CUNY) Hunter College, 695 Park Ave, New York, NY 10065 United States, July 2019.