Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Do achievement goals change across time in response to performance feedback? Does goal orientation relate to calibration of estimated to actual achievement? We studied these issues over three tasks spanning a semester-long course where ninety-nine undergraduates received feedback about performance on each task. Learners were consistently and quite substantially biased in estimating performance with bias inversely related to actual performance. Goal orientation was not stable across time as a function of task, and it varied in some tasks in relation to calibration accuracy. These findings demonstrate goal orientations are sensitive to task and feedback. Moreover, goal orientation had varying and sometimes no relation to achievement, with calibration bias mediating most of the relations. In an authentic setting where learners experience multiple tasks over time, it is important to consider individuals’ calibration bias for performance on specific tasks. Calibration bias may be a key factor in learners’ regulation of achievement goals.


This article was originally published in International Education Research, available at

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.