Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Forensic Science



First Advisor or Mentor

Marcel Roberts

Second Reader

Marta Concheiro-Guisan

Third Advisor

Stanley Lue


The emergence of synthetic cannabinoids is an ongoing challenge for forensic, clinical analytical chemists and toxicologists. Different analogs are continuously introduced in the market to circumvent the legislation and to enhance their pharmacological activity. In the present project, a total of seven synthetic cannabinoids were identified in four herbal incense products by employing GCMS, and LC-TOF. Fractional collection of four out of the seven synthetic cannabinoids was performed using HPLC followed by the collection of FTIR-ATR spectra. Five out of seven synthetic cannabinoids were classified as indazole carboxamide derivatives, which include 5Fluoro-EMB-Pinaca, 5Fluoro-AMB, MA-Chminaca, AB-Chminaca, and 5Fluoro-AKB-48. The remaining two belong to the naphtholindoles and tetramethylcyclopropylcarbonylindoles class, NM-2201 and XLR-11, respectively. 5Fluoro-AMB was found in Pineapple Xtreme and G20 second generation and MA-Chminaca was found in Pineapple Xtreme and Blue Giant bag. Confirmation of identified synthetic cannabinoids was done through analyzing reference standard compounds under same experimental conditions.



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