Date of Award

Summer 6-30-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Forensic Psychology



First Advisor or Mentor

Cynthia Calkins

Second Reader

Elizabeth Jeglic

Third Advisor

Jaqueline Katzman


As online involuntary celibate (incel) forms have grown, they have become dominated by violent and misogynistic rhetoric. There have also been instances of offline violence being motivated by incel ideology and anti-feminist beliefs. Past research has established a link between inceldom and violent rhetoric through analysis of incel forum posts and activity. However, comparisons between non-incels and incels regarding masculinity and violence have rarely been conducted. We used a survey design to compare incels and non-incels on three factors: support for violence, inceldom characteristics, and internalized masculinity. Consistent with prior research, incels held more negative views of women and feminism compared to non-incels. The inceldom scale, developed using the findings of prior research on how incels view women and romantic relationships, was able to differentiate between incel and non-incels. Incels were also found to be more likely to support violence motivated by incel ideology where women were the primary targets, which is also consistent with prior research. Finally, incels were found to hold more traditional views of masculinity and to experience higher levels of conflict regarding male gender roles compared to non-incels.



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