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Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is known for its use as a bittering agent in beer and has a rich history of cultivation, beginning in Europe and now spanning the globe. There are five wild varieties worldwide, which may have been introgressed with cultivated varieties. As a dioecious species, its obligate outcrossing, non-Mendelian inheritance, and genomic structural variability have confounded directed breeding efforts. Consequently, understanding the hop genome represents a considerable challenge, requiring additional resources. In order to facilitate investigations into the transmission genetics of hop, we report here a tandem repeat discovery pipeline developed using k-mer filtering and dot plot analysis of PacBio long-read sequences from the hop cultivar Apollo. From this we identified 17 new and distinct tandem repeat sequence families, which represent candidates for FISH probe development. For two of these candidates, HuluTR120 and HuluTR225, we produced oligonucleotide FISH probes from conserved regions of and demonstrated their utility by staining meiotic chromosomes from wild hop, var. neomexicanus to address, for example, questions about hop transmission genetics. Collectively, these tandem repeat sequence families represent new resources suitable for development of additional cytogenomic tools for hop research.


This work was originally published in PLOS ONE, available at

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