Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



The gelling process in the aqueous lanthanum-cobalt-citric acid system was studied using UV-VIS and IR spectroscopic methods, as well as viscosity measurements, to establish the gelling mechanism of transition metal ions (La3+ and Co2+) in the presence of chelating agent. Lanthanum and cobalt nitrates and lanthanum and cobalt acetates, respectively, were used as starting reagents, and the citric acid was used as chelating agent. The gelation process was investigated at room temperature and at 80°C. At elevated temperature, the gels were obtained after 30 h, whereas at room temperature, these were obtained in 1 month. Complex gels were formed for the both studied systems. The Co2+ ions mainly present an octahedral symmetry during the whole gelation process, whereas the citric acid acts as monodentate or bridging ligand depending on the metal precursors used. The mechanism of formation of the La- Co-CA based gels with the coordinative structures was proposed.


This work was originally published in Journal of American Ceramic Society.

Included in

Chemistry Commons


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.