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We discuss invariants of Cohen-Macaulay local rings that admit a canonical module ω. Attached to each such ring R, when ω is an ideal, there are integers–the type of R, the reduction number of ω–that provide valuable metrics to express the deviation of R from being a Gorenstein ring. In (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 589:506–528, 2017) and (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 571:55–74, 2021) we enlarged this list with the canonical degree and the bi-canonical degree. In this work we extend the bi-canonical degree to rings where ω is not necessarily an ideal. We also discuss generalizations to rings without canonical modules but admitting modules sharing some of their properties.


Brennan, J., Ghezzi, L., Hong, J. et al. Generalization of bi-canonical degrees. São Paulo J. Math. Sci. (2022). Preprint at



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