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Key minerals such as iron, manganese and copper are necessary for optimal health and vitality of human beings. These minerals are within the biomolecules of food, particularly in fruits and are not detectable without destroying their natural biochemical roles. A compilation was done on average mineral compositions for multiple apple varieties from USDA and academic horticulture research labs to design the x-ray beams in the low energy ranges in our mammography system that provide “soft” x-rays for imaging light-weight atoms. In this project homemade external filters like Aluminum sheets, Iodine and Gadolinium contrast media were developed to modify low energy X-rays for more dedicated detection of each of these minerals. The absorption patterns and utility of such modified x-ray beams were analyzed. Differentiation between the imaging of iron and other minerals was challenging but a common distribution pattern from the core to the cortex of the apples was observed for all varieties of apples tested.


This poster, second place winner for group projects, was presented at the 37th Semi-Annual Dr. Janet Liou-Mark Honors & Undergraduate Research Poster Presentation, Dec. 1, 2022. Mentors: Profs. Subhendra Sarkar, Evans Lespinasse (Radiologic Technology & Medical Imaging).



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