Patients at increased risk of bleeding and recurrent VTE who develop venous thromboembolism (VTE) present challenges for clinical management. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of apixaban vs warfarin in patients with VTE who have risk factors for bleeding or recurrences.
Adult patients with VTE initiating apixaban or warfarin were identified from five claims databases. Stabilized inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance characteristics between cohorts for the main analysis. Subgroup interaction analyses were conducted to evaluate treatment effects among patients with and without each of the conditions that increased the risk of bleeding (thrombocytopenia and history of bleed) or recurrent VTE (thrombophilia, chronic liver disease, and immune-mediated disorders).
A total of 94,333 warfarin and 60,786 apixaban patients with VTE met selection criteria. After IPTW, all patient characteristics were balanced between cohorts. Apixaban (vs warfarin) patients were at lower risk of recurrent VTE (HR [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 [0.67–0.78]), major bleeding (MB) (HR [95% CI] 0.70 [0.64–0.76]), and clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding (HR [95% CI] 0.83 [0.80–0.86]). Subgroup analyses showed generally consistent findings with the overall analysis. For most subgroup analyses, there were no significant interactions between treatment and subgroup strata on VTE, MB and CRNM bleeding.
Patients with prescription fills for apixaban had lower risk of recurrent VTE, MB, and CRNM bleeding compared with warfarin patients. Treatment effects of apixaban vs warfarin were generally consistent across subgroups of patients at increased risk of bleeding/recurrences.