Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Our goal is identification of secondary electrons and Compton photons when externally infused radiological contrast from iodine and gadolinium interferes with calcium and iron in tissues. This could help develop next generation of x-ray methods as well as mechanistic understanding of toxic effects of radiology contrast materials on living tissue and agriculture. Changes in tissue minerals over time, aging and heat stress are manipulated in our experiments by infusing imaging contrast agents that consist of large atoms like Gadolinium and Iodine. These have chelation properties to alter electron distribution of proteins and carbohydrates of biological matrix. Our experiments try to map such changes by secondary x ray detection and related modeling. We compare the distribution of minerals within the core and cortex of 1 month old Gala apple to four-month-old Gala apples. We do this by imaging these apples using rhodium and silver filters and gradually mapping out the potential spread of minerals. It has been found that is a slight spread of minerals. Within the core of the apples, there has been an approximate 20% change versus within the cortex of the apples, there has been approximately a 24-26% change. Our preliminary data shows high keV x-rays generates more secondary photons in the mineral-rich areas in the apple samples than in tissue regions with a mineral-poor matrix. Although tissue contrast is supposed to be lower at a higher keV, the contrast also depends on existence of heavy metals such as iron. So, the usual lower tissue contrast at a higher keV can actually be manipulated to detect and differentiate between heavy and light minerals in the core and cortex of these Gala apples. One experiment shows 36 keV is preferred to map the core of Gala apples have iron and the cortex has potassium while the low energy of 24 keV x-rays cannot differentiate between iron and potassium.


This poster, second place winner for STEM projects, was presented at the 39th Semi-Annual Dr. Janet Liou-Mark Honors & Undergraduate Research Poster Presentation, December 7, 2023. Mentor: Profs. Subhendra Sarkar and Evans Lespinasse (Radiologic Technology).



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.