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Anomaly detection in medical imaging, particularly within the realm of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), stands as a vital area of research with far-reaching implications across various medical fields. This review meticulously examines the integration of artificial intelligence (AI) in anomaly detection for MR images, spotlighting its transformative impact on medical diagnostics. We delve into the forefront of AI applications in MRI, exploring advanced machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methodologies that are pivotal in enhancing the precision of diagnostic processes. The review provides a detailed analysis of preprocessing, feature extraction, classification, and segmentation techniques, alongside a comprehensive evaluation of commonly used metrics. Further, this paper explores the latest developments in ensemble methods and explainable AI, offering insights into future directions and potential breakthroughs. This review synthesizes current insights, offering a valuable guide for researchers, clinicians, and medical imaging experts. It highlights AI's crucial role in improving the precision and speed of detecting key structural and functional irregularities in MRI. Our exploration of innovative techniques and trends furthers MRI technology development, aiming to refine diagnostics, tailor treatments, and elevate patient care outcomes.


This is the author's accepted manuscript of an article originally published in Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, available at

Available for download on Tuesday, January 28, 2025