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The frequent blood glucose monitoring by the diabetics and physicians is a very essential step in the management of the diabetes because this devastating disease can lead the patients to blindness, kidney disease, nervous & circulatory system disease, limb amputations, stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There have been numerous attempts to develop viable painless non- or minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring techniques over the last five decades in order to replace all existing methods of home blood glucose monitoring require drawing a blood sample by piercing the skin. This review describes the principles of two main emerging general technologies such as optical and electrochemical glucose monitoring methods, which represent 12 specific techniques applying multivariate regression analyses converting feeble optical or electrochemical signal to glucose concentration. This review article also deals with advances utilizing integration of glucose sensing techniques into targeting areas by sampling potential alternative physiological human body fluids to blood such as interstitial fluid, urine, sweat, ocular fluids and saliva contain traces of blood glucose.


This work was originally published in International Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics, and is made available under a CC BY NC Creative Commons 4.0 license.



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