Book Chapter or Section
In this research, the modeling, design, fabrication, and application of ECIS sensors in environmental monitoringare studied. The ECIS sensors are able to qualify the water toxicity through measuring the cell impedance. A novel mathematical model is proposed to analyze the distribution of electric potential and current of ECIS. This mathematical model is validated by experimental data and can be used to optimize the dimension of ECIS electrodes in order to satisfy environmental monitors. The detection sensitivity of ECIS sensors is analyzed by the mathematical model and experimental data. The simulated and experimental results show that ECIS sensors with smaller radius of working electrodes yield higher impedance values, which improves signal-to-noise ratio, which is more suitable in measuring the cell morphology change influenced by environments. Several ECIS sensors are used to detect the toxicant including, phenol, ammonia, nicotine, and aldicarb, and the decreasing cell impedance indicates the toxic effect. The gradient of measured impedance qualitatively indicates the concentration of toxicants in water.