Contributing to the longevity of the restoration by minimizing the effects of surface corrosion, maintaining the esthetic appearance and the smooth surface characterization, and contributing to gingival health by lessening the potential for plaque retention are the principal reasons for taking care of dental restorations. However, during oral hygiene routine procedures and prevention treatments, these desired effects are not always achieved. In many cases, the restorative materials are not identified in a patient’s record leading to damage during oral hygiene performance by dental professionals. Therefore, it is important to be able to recognize the different restorative materials and employ the correct treatment protocols. Between the materials that can be most encountered in these restorations are metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. Management of these materials during dental hygiene procedures requires an understanding of their structure and properties. The microstructure of all restorative materials is based on the chemical phases that exist within it. A simplified view of microstructures consists of a continuous and a dispersed phase, where this last one is harder than the first. Consequently, polishing agents should be softer than the natural enamel or any of the soft phases in restorative material. Besides, there are other factors to consider such as applied pressure and the size of polishing particles. The aim of this study is to attain general knowledge regarding the unintended effects of oral hygiene and dental prophylaxis and prevention methods on restorations surfaces and identifying the structure and properties of restorative materials that put them at risk of damage.