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This article examines whether teaching with primary sources can cultivate civic engagement by investigating the competencies involved in developing student civic engagement and aligning these with outcomes from teaching with primary sources. Using three examples from Brooklyn Connections, a primary source-based education outreach program that offers a free standards-based and curriculum-aligned school partnership program for grades four through twelve, this case study illustrates the potential for using primary sources to cultivate skills, knowledge, and student agency. Through assessment of these examples in teaching with primary sources using protocols developed for evaluation of programs that focus on developing civic engagement, the author confirms that teaching with primary sources can cultivate civic engagement and narrow an existing civic empowerment gap by teaching skills and knowledge while also providing lifelong social and emotional benefits.


Hoyer, Jen (2020) "Out of the Archives and into the Streets: Teaching with Primary Sources to Cultivate Civic Engagement," Journal of Contemporary Archival Studies: Vol. 7 , Article 9. Available at:



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