The surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect is among the major environmental issues encountered in urban regions. To better predict the dynamics of the SUHI and its impacts on extreme heat events, an accurate characterization of the surface energy balance in urban regions is needed. However, the ability to improve understanding of the surface energy balance is limited by the heterogeneity of surfaces in urban areas. This study aims to enhance the understanding of the urban surface energy budget through an innovation in the use of land surface temperature (LST) observations from remote sensing satellites. A LST database with 5–min temporal and 30–m spatial resolution is developed by spatial downscaling of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites—R (GOES–R) series LST product over New York City (NYC). The new downscaling method, known as the Spatial Downscaling Method (SDM), benefits from the fine spatial resolution of Landsat–8 and high temporal resolution of GOES–R, and considers the temporal variation in LST for each land cover type separately. Preliminary results show that the SDM can reproduce the temporal and spatial variability of LST over NYC reasonably well and the downscaled LST has a spatial root mean square error (RMSE) of the order of 2 K as compared to the independent Landsat–8 observations. The SDM shows smaller RMSE of 1.93 K over the tree canopy land cover, whereas RMSE is 2.19 K for built–up areas. The overall results indicate that the SDM has potential to estimate LST at finer spatial and temporal scales over urban regions.