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The aim of this literature research is to evaluate and identify alternative sources of energy instead of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels like natural gas, oil, and coal are known as nonrenewable resources because they are finite resources that cannot be readily replenished at the same pace as their consumption. The alternatives that will be searched for in this literature review are specifically, biofuels, hydrogen, and green energy sources which are all known as renewable. The review will then focus on hydrogen as true potential replacement of fossil fuels. In some countries, alternative renewable sources include geothermal energy, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric technologies. Hydroelectricity is the only renewable energy that is reliable. Generally, renewable energy sources generate most of their energy at certain times of the day, and their electricity generation does not match the peak demand hours. The intermittency of sunshine and wind cannot provide an on-demand power source 24 hours a week. Solar energy and wind are unpredictable. Unlike fossil fuel, green/renewable energy does not appear to be a one size fits all solution. The use of multiple sources is generally required to meet energy needs. Identifying those sources and evaluating their viability is the adjusted purpose of this research project


This poster was presented at the 36th Semi-Annual Dr. Janet Liou-Mark Honors & Undergraduate Research Poster Presentation, May 5, 2022. Mentor: Prof. Alberto Martinez (Chemistry). This project was part of the CUNY Research Scholars Program (CRSP).

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