Book Chapter or Section
Diabetes can cause various acute as well as long-term complications in patients, with blood sugar levels of over 600 mg/dL, such as blindness, kidney disease, nervous & circulatory system disease, limb amputations, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Frequent and regular blood glucose monitoring by diabetics and physicians is an essential step in the management of diabetes. Over the last five decades, there have been numerous attempts to develop viable painless non- or minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring techniques to replace all existing invasive methods, such as home blood glucose monitoring, which usually require drawing a blood sample by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger). This method strongly discourages the patients’ compliance and has serious drawbacks as the procedure is invasive causing discomfort, pain, and potential risks of infection or tissue damage. It is highly desired to have alternative non-invasive blood glucose monitoring techniques. This review investigates the principles of three major emerging general technologies, namely optical, Radio Frequency (RF)/microwave, and electrochemical glucose monitoring technologies. These glucose monitoring technologies can be classified as 15 specific techniques that use multivariate regression analyses to correlate feeble optical, Radio Frequency (RF)/microwave, or electrochemical signals from various body fluids to physiological glucose concentration. This review also offers how to utilize the integration of glucose sensing techniques into targeting variable areas by sampling physiological human body fluids as an alternative diagnostic medium to blood, for example, interstitial fluid, urine, sweat, ocular fluids, and saliva which all contain traces of blood glucose. The feasibility of adopting these emerging technologies in the commercial market is discussed in terms of safety, cost-effectiveness, data management, and accuracy.
Available for download on Friday, July 12, 2024