Publications and Research

Document Type

Book Chapter or Section

Publication Date



The first monotheist human, Adam, was likely a god, in the Mesopotamian mythology, just as the Hebrew Genesis reluctantly revealed, and the assertive Quran slightly hinted. Specifically, he was the pre-monotheist, Sumerian god, Idim, who was also called GodEa and many other nicknames over the millenniums. The names Idim and Adam are even linguistically related, according to early Arabic root words analysis. As a Mesopotamian god, Idim was the creator of the first human, and the father of his immediate generations, as he was sometimes referred to in the ancient literature. He was the preserver of life on earth, and the protector of humans against the evil designs of their, and his arch enemy, GodEnlil, the future monotheist Satan. The names and roles of these two important divine characters, GodIdim and GodEnlil, were etched too deep in the collective folk memory of the peoples of the greater Mesopotamia and the Near East, to be completely erased by the new monotheist order. The early monotheists had likely eased in their new believes to the peoples of the region by incorporating these two second highest ranking gods under the supreme god of heavens, GodAnu (or GodAlu), as new altered divine characters. The top god, GodAnu, was then given the post-monotheist role of the one and only god, Alhim or Allah, consistent with the key theme of the Monotheist faiths. Several important narrative details involving the events, characters, and roles in the Hebrew Genesis story of Adam must have predated it for many centuries. The story in the Quran omitted much of the details in Genesis, but included a few unique details on its own. However, all of these ancient stories seem to be independent, original stories borrowing only bits and pieces from each other.


This work will be published in "Lost in Translation, Presumption, and Interpretation: Adam, Noah, and the Ancient Mesopotamian Mythology of the Creation and the Flood."



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.