We establish wavelet characterizations of homogeneous Besov spaces on stratified Lie groups, bothin terms of continuous and discrete wavelet systems. We first introduce a notion of homogeneous Besov space ̇Bsp,qin terms of a Littlewood-Paley-type decomposition, in analogy to the well-known characterization of the Euclidean case. Such decompositions can be defined via the spectral measure of a suitably chosen sub-Laplacian. We prove that the scale of Besov spaces is independent of the precise choice of Littlewood-Paley decomposition. In particular, different sub-Laplacians yield the same Besov spaces. We then turn to wavelet characterizations, first via continuous wavelet transforms which can be viewed as continuous-scale Littlewood-Paley decompositions, then via discretely indexed systems. We prove the existence of wavelet frames and associate datomic decomposition formulas for all homogeneous Besov spaces ̇Bsp,q with 1≤p, q <∞ands R.