Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Several factors are thought to shape male parasite risk in polygynous and polygynandrous mammals, including male-male competition, investment in potentially immunosuppressive hormones, and dispersal. Parasitism is also driven by processes occurring at larger scales, including host social groups and populations. To date, studies that test parasite-related costs of male behavior at all three scales—individual hosts, social groups, and the host population—remain rare. To fill this gap, we investigated multi-scale predictors of helminth parasitism in 97 male savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya over a 5-year span. Controlling for multi-scale processes, we found that many of the classic indicators of male mating effort—high dominance rank, testosterone, and glucocorticoids—did not predict helminth infection risk. However, we identified two parasite-related costs associated with male behavior: (i) socially connected males exhibited higher Trichuris trichiura egg counts and greater parasite species richness than socially isolated males and (ii) males with stable group residency exhibited higher parasite species richness than males who frequently dispersed to new social groups. At the population level, males harbored more parasites following periods of drought than rainfall. Lastly, parasites exhibited positive covariance suggesting that infection risk increases if a host already harbors one or more parasite taxa. These results indicate that multi-scale processes are important in driving male parasite risk and that some aspects of male behavior are costly. Together, our results provide an unusually holistic perspective on the drivers of parasite risk in the context of male behaviors and life histories.


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology as: Habig, Bobby, David A. W. A. M. Jansen, Mercy Y. Akinyi, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Susan C. Alberts and Elizabeth A. Archie. "Multi-Scale Predictors of Parasite Risk in Wild Male Savanna Baboons (Papio cynocephalus)." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol. 73, no. 10, 2019, article 134. doi:

The final authenticated version of this article is available online at:



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.