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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent, inheritable, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder. Children with a family history of ADHD are at elevated risk of having ADHD and persisting its symptoms into adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of having or not having positive family risk factor in the neuroanatomy of the brain in children with ADHD. Cortical thickness-, surface area-, and volume-based measures were extracted and compared in a total of 606 participants, including 132, 165, and 309 in groups of familial ADHD (ADHD-F), non-familial ADHD (ADHD-NF), and typically developed children, respectively. Compared to controls, ADHD probands showed significantly reduced gray matter surface area in the left cuneus. Among the ADHD subgroups, ADHD-F showed significantly increased gray matter volume in the right thalamus and significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right pars orbitalis. Among ADHD-F, an increased volume of the right thalamus was significantly correlated with a reduced DSM-oriented t-score for ADHD problems. The findings of this study may suggest that a positive family history of ADHD is associated with the structural abnormalities in the thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus; these anatomical abnormalities may significantly contribute to the emergence of ADHD symptoms.


Baboli, Rahman, Meng Cao, Jeffrey M. Halperin, and Xiaobo Li. "Distinct Thalamic and Frontal Neuroanatomical Substrates in Children with Familial vs. Non-Familial Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Brain Sciences. vol. 13, no. 1, 2022, doi: 10.3390/brainsci13010046

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