Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Background. Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at elevated risk for gonorrhea and chlamydia trachomatis (GC/CT). Rectal GC/CT symptoms may be less obvious than urethral, increasing opportunities for undiagnosed rectal GC/CT.

Method. A U.S. national sample of 1,071 GBM completed urethral and rectal GC/CT testing and an online survey.

Results. In total, 6.2% were GC/CT positive (5.3% rectal, 1.7% urethral). We calculated adjusted (for education, race, age, relationship status, having health insurance, and income) odds ratios for factors associated with rectal and urethral GC/CT diagnoses. Age was inversely associated with urethral and rectal GC/CT. Compared to White men, Latinos had significantly greater odds of rectal GC/CT. Among men who reported anal sex, those reporting only insertive sex had lower odds of rectal GC/CT than men who reported both insertive and receptive. There was a positive association between rectal GC/CT and number of male partners (<12 >months), the number of anal receptive acts, receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) acts, and insertive CAS acts. Compared to those who had engaged in both insertive and receptive anal sex, those who engaged in only receptive anal sex had lower odds of urethral GC/CT. The number of male partners (<12 >months) was associated with increased odds of urethral GC/CT.

Conclusion. Rectal GC/CT was more common than urethral and associated with some demographic and behavioral characteristics. Our finding that insertive CAS acts was associated with rectal GC/CT highlights that providers should screen patients for GC/CT via a full range of transmission routes, lest GC/CT go undiagnosed.


This is the accepted manuscript of an article published in Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Included in

Public Health Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.