Protein phosphorylation, mediated by a family of enzymes called cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), plays a central role in the cell-division cycle of eukaryotes. Phosphorylation by Cdks directs the cell cycle by modifying the function of regulators of key processes such as DNA replication and mitotic progression. Here, we present a novel computational procedure to predict substrates of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 (Cdk1) in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Currently, most computational phosphorylation site prediction procedures focus solely on local sequence characteristics. In the present procedure, we model Cdk substrates based on both local and global characteristics of the substrates. Thus, we define the local sequence motifs that represent the Cdc28 phosphorylation sites and subsequently model clustering of these motifs within the protein sequences. This restraint reflects the observation that many known Cdk substrates contain multiple clustered phosphorylation sites. The present strategy defines a subset of the proteome that is highly enriched for Cdk substrates, as validated by comparing it to a set of bona fide, published, experimentally characterized Cdk substrates which was to our knowledge, comprehensive at the time of writing. To corroborate our model, we compared its predictions with three experimentally independent Cdk proteomic datasets and found significant overlap. Finally, we directly detected in vivo phosphorylation at Cdk motifs for selected putative substrates using mass spectrometry.
Chang, E. J., Begum, R., Chait, B. T. & Gaasterland, T. (2007). Prediction of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Phosphorylation Substrates. PLoS ONE, 2(8), e656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000656.