Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 6-2024


Background The Pandemic Anxiety Inventory (PAI) was developed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Its content allows it to assess anxiety in connection to any pandemic. Previous research has demonstrated the instrument’s reliability and validity. An important question for clinicians and researchers, however, remains open: Does the PAI have similar meaning for members of different demographic groups? The finding of measurement invariance would allow clinicians and researchers to comparatively assess pandemic-related anxiety across demographic groups, including favored and disfavored groups.

Methods We conducted a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis to assess the measurement invariance of the PAI using data obtained from a sample of 379 residents of the United Kingdom.

Results The PAI demonstrated invariance across genders, age groups, individuals who are married or in a relationship and those who are not, as well as individuals with higher and lower incomes. In an ancillary analysis, we found invariance across subsamples of Whites and Nonwhites, although we note that the Nonwhite group was small (n = 60) and heterogeneous. The findings of a supplemental MIMIC analysis were consistent with the above.

Conclusions The PAI shows measurement invariance across a variety of demographic groups. Our findings suggest that the instrument can be meaningfully employed to compare pandemic-related anxiety across these groups.

Keywords Pandemic Anxiety Inventory, Measurement invariance, Demographic groups, Confirmatory factor analysis, MIMIC analysis


This article was originally published as: Schonfeld, I. S., Prytherch, T., Cropley, M., & Bianchi, R. (2024). Measurement invariance of the Pandemic Anxiety Inventory in different demographic groups. BMC Psychology, 12, 353.

Supplement 1.pdf (356 kB)
The Pandemic Anxiety Inventory

Supplement 2.pdf (233 kB)
Supplemental Appendix: MIMIC Model Approach to Invariance Testing



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