Date of Award

Spring 5-5-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

Yayoi Uno Everett

Second Advisor

L. Poundie Burstein

Academic Program Adviser

Yayoi Uno Everett


The Nintendo Game Boy had a sound chip which allowed for only three pitched voices and one unpitched percussive voice. These limitations affected the music that was written for this video game system. Of the three pitched voices, one voice typically performs the melody, and one voice typically is the bass and harmonic foundation. This thesis analyzes the third voice, typically in the middle of the musical texture, and the various functions that it can hold. As is discussed, the middle voice sometimes pairs in harmony with the melody or the bass. In other cases, however, it forms a musical line that is independent from the other two voices, or else it helps provide musical texture. In cases where a pitched voice is omitted from the musical texture to produce a sound effect, it is almost always the flex voice that is omitted.

Included in

Music Theory Commons



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