Date of Award

Spring 5-5-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

David M. Powell

Second Advisor

Sonia Ragir

Third Advisor

Sheila Chase

Academic Program Adviser

Ofer Tchernichovski


Giraffe were provided with a choice between easy and difficult food sources containing varying proportions of grain. Individual giraffe showed fixed preferences for contrafreeloading (working for food), eating at the easy source, or following the food distribution. Introduction of the contrafreeloading opportunity also led to a decrease in displacements.



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