Date of Award

Fall 1-23-2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



First Advisor

David Julian Hodges

Second Advisor

Ignasi Clemente Pesudo

Academic Program Adviser

Leo Coleman


Educators, legislators, and social activists have long debated the most efficient way to address the high needs of students in Title I middle schools that stem from persistent inequalities in education due to generational poverty and racism. Social activists have proposed integrated social services as a means to remove barriers that prevent students from learning. Providing integrated social services in conjunction with academic reading interventions should efficiently aid in closing the achievement gap that exists from the inequalities in education. This study examines the effectiveness of implementing the Middle School Quality Initiative, a reading and literacy program, in conjunction with integrated social services in Title I Middle Schools in the South Bronx in New York City. A statistical analysis was conducted to compare Title I middle schools that received only the reading intervention with those that received the reading intervention in conjunction with integrated social services. The most significant factor in improving students’ scores on standardized exams was the implementation of reading intervention as students who only received this intervention demonstrated a higher rate of reading proficiency on the standardized exam.



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