Date of Award

Spring 5-28-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


Education: Special Education

First Advisor

Nicora Placa

Second Advisor

Jen Samson

Third Advisor

Melinda Snodgrass


Students with a learning disability (LD) are experts in their lived experiences within the classroom. Yet, little is known about the ways in which students with LD perceive their instruction in mathematics and whether this instruction meets their learning needs. Similarly, the mathematical thinking and content knowledge of students with LD is often excluded from the literature, particularly concerning algebraic concepts. Six high school students with LD from a large urban school district in the northeast United States participated in this two-part study. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore participants’ perceptions about their instruction within Integrated Co-Taught (ICT) mathematics classes. By using in vivo coding, data from semi-structured interviews were analyzed across and within cases. Findings from semi-structured interviews are presented in regard to the following four themes: (a) breaking down content, (b) pacing, (c) ensuring student understanding, and (d) group work. Additionally, mathematical task interviews were used to give voice to participants’ knowledge of linear functions. Data from mathematical task interview transcripts were analyzed using provisional coding, and data from students’ work were analyzed based on its validity and accuracy in relation to the mathematical task. Across tasks, participants demonstrated that their understanding fell into one of the following categories: (a) emergent understanding, (b) procedural understanding, and (c) conceptual understanding. Results are discussed in relation to teacher implications and future 2 research with the hope that privileging the experiences of students with LD will further improve mathematics instruction for students with LD within an ICT setting.



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