Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 3-2021


This study analyzes citations by first-year students to determine what content they were citing and whether it was available through the open web or the library. Examining the role of these two places as content providers for academic work fills a gap in the literature. Most of the cited works were available through the library and the open web. As the line between content providers continues to blur, these results can help academic libraries prioritize what to teach students about information literacy, where to focus collection development efforts and how to promote the discovery of library resources.


This is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in College & Undergraduate Libraries in 2021 available online at DOI: 10.1080/10691316.2021.1894295. It is deposited under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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