"Our first report documented misdemeanor arrests in New York City and compared those trends to Upstate Cities in New York State (i.e., Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Yonkers) and the rest of New York State for over three decades. The first report, entitled Trends in Misdemeanor Arrests in New York, examined not only arrest rates but also examined charges, dispositions, and sentences. Our second report was entitled The Summons Report : Trends in the Issuance and Disposition of Summonses in New York City, 2003-2014. This report examined trends in issuance patterns by age and gender, charges, dispositions, and sentences. Similar to the first report, we were able to track the enforcement activity from contact with enforcement officer to disposition. This third report updates the demographic trends from the first two reports to include 2014. We also added data reflecting trends in the practice of pedestrian stops, known as "stop, question, and frisk" in New York City. These stops represent a different kind of enforcement activity, one that only infrequently results in an arrest or summons, but still represent an assertion of legal authority over an individual by police." -- Page 7.
Chauhan, P., Warner, T.C., Fera, A.G., Balazon, E., Lu, O., & Welsh, M. with an Introduction by Jeremy Travis. (2015, December). Tracking enforcement rates in New York City, 2003-2014. Report Presented to the Citizens Crime Commission. New York: New York.