Maximal repetitions or runs in strings have a wide array of applications and thus have been extensively studied. In this paper, we extend this notion to 2-dimensions, precisely defining a maximal 2D repetition. We provide initial bounds on the number of maximal 2D repetitions that can occur in a matrix. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of the first algorithm for locating all maximal 2D repetitions in a matrix. The algorithm is efficient and straightforward, with runtime O(n^2 log n log log n+ rho log n), where n^2 is the size of the input, and rho is the number of 2D repetitions in the output.
Amir, Amihood; Landau, Gad M.; Marcus, Shoshana; and Sokol, Dina, "Two-Dimensional Maximal Repetitions" (2018). CUNY Academic Works.