Publications and Research

Document Type


Publication Date



Ordinary least-squares regression suffers from a fundamental lack of symmetry: the regression line of y given x and the regression line of x given y are not inverses of each other. Alternative symmetric regression methods have been developed to address this concern, notably: orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. This paper presents in detail a variety of least squares regression methods which may not have been known or fully explicated. The derivation of each method is made efficient through the use of Ehrenberg's formula for the ordinary least-squares error and through the extraction of a weight function g(b) which characterizes the regression. For every case of generalized least-squares, the error between the line and the data is shown to be a product of the weight function g(b) and Ehrenberg's error formula.


This work was originally published in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE'13.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.